From wiki, we have the following:

In statisticsresampling is any of a variety of methods for doing one of the following:

  1. Estimating the precision of sample statistics (mediansvariancespercentiles) by using subsets of available data (jackknifing) or drawing randomly with replacement from a set of data points (bootstrapping)
  2. Exchanging labels on data points when performing significance tests (permutation tests, also called exact tests, randomization tests, or re-randomization tests)
  3. Validating models by using random subsets (bootstrapping, cross validation)

Common resampling techniques include bootstrapping, jackknifing and permutation tests.

  • Bootstrapping is a statistical method for estimating the sampling distribution of an estimator by sampling with replacement from the original sample, most often with the purpose of deriving robust estimates of standard errors and confidence intervals of a population parameter like a meanmedian,proportionodds ratiocorrelation coefficient or regression coefficient.
  • Jackknifing, which is similar to bootstrapping, is used in statistical inference to estimate the bias and standard error (variance) of a statistic, when a random sample of observations is used to calculate it. The basic idea behind the jackknife variance estimator lies in systematically recomputing the statistic estimate leaving out one or more observations at a time from the sample set. From this new set of replicates of the statistic, an estimate for the bias and an estimate for the variance of the statistic can be calculated.
  • Cross-validation is a statistical method for validating a predictive model. Subsets of the data are held out for use as validating sets; a model is fit to the remaining data (a training set) and used to predict for the validation set. Averaging the quality of the predictions across the validation sets yields an overall measure of prediction accuracy.
  • permutation test (also called a randomization test, re-randomization test, or an exact test) is a type of statistical significance test in which the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis is obtained by calculating all possible values of the test statistic under rearrangements of the labels on the observed data points.